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Publications of David Thomas

As indicated by hyperlinks in the list, PDF copies of some of these publications are available for non-commercial research and educational purposes only. You may not use the material for commercial purposes or make multiple copies without requesting permission from the copyright holder (usually the book or journal publisher).

Peer Reviewed Journal Papers

Kaartokallio, H, Asmala, E, Autio, R and Thomas, DN. 2016.
Bacterial production, abundance and cell properties in boreal estuaries: Relation to dissolved organic matter quantity and quality. Aquatic Sciences, 78, 525-540. (id:2627)

Räike, A, Kortelainen, P, Mattsson, T and Thomas, DN. 2016.
Long-term trends (1975 - 2014) in the concentrations and export of carbon from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea: Organic and inorganic components compared. Aquatic Sciences, 78, 505-523. (id:2628)

Zhou, J, Kotovitch, M, Kaartokallio, H, Moreau, S, Tison, J-L, Kattner, G, Dieckmann, GS, Thomas, DN, Delille, B. 2016.
The impact of dissolved organic carbon and bacterial respiration on pCO2 in experimental sea ice. Progress in Oceanography, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.12.005 (id:2625)

Flemming-Lehtenin V, A Räike, P Kortelainen, P Kaupila and DN Thomas. 2015.
Organic carbon concentration in the northern coastal Baltic Sea between 1975 and 2011. Estuaries and Coasts, 38, 466-481. doi: 10.1007/s12237-0149829-y (id:2457)

Jørgensen, L, CA Stedmon, H Kaartokallio, M Middelboe and DN Thomas. 2015.
Changes in the composition and biovailability of dissolved organic matter during sea ice formation. Limnology and Oceanography, doi: 10.1002/lno.10058 (id:2504)

Miller, LA, F Fripiat, BGT Else, JS Bowman, KA Brown, RE Collins, M Ewert, A Fransson, M Gosselin, D Lannuzel, KM Meiners, C Michel, J Nishioka, D Nomura, S Papadimitriou, LM Russell, LL Sørensen, DN Thomas, J-L Tison, MA van Leeuwe, M Vancoppenolle, EW Wolff and J Zhou. 2015.
Methods for biogeochemical studies of Sea Ice: The State of the Art, caveats and recommendations. Elementa - Science of the Anthropocene, doi: 10.12952/journal.elementa.000038 (id:2505)

Moreau, S, M Vancoppenole, B DeLille, J-L Tison, J Zhou, M Kotovitch, DN Thomas, N-X Geilfus and H Goosse. 2015.
Drivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: a model study. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2014JC010388 (id:2506)

Quintã R, R Santos, DN Thomas and L Le Vay. 2015.
Growth and nitrogen uptake by Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium in nutrient conditions typical of aquaculture wastewater. Chemosphere,120, 414-421 (id:2465)

Quintã, R, P Hill, D. Jones, R. Santos, DN Thomas and L Le Vay. 2015.
Uptake of an amino acid (alanine) and its peptide (trialanine) by the saltmarsh halophytes Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium and its potential role in ecosystem N cycling and marine aquaculture wastewater treatment. Environmental Engineering, 75, 145-154. (id:2508)

Asmala, E, Bowers, DG, Autio, R, Kaartokallio, H and Thomas, DN. 2014.
Qualitative changes of riverine dissolved organic matter at low salinities due to flocculation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 119, 1919-1933. (id:2629)

Asmala, E, R Autio, H Kaartokallio, CA Stedmon and DN Thomas. 2014.
Processing of humic-rich riverine dissolved organic matter by estuarine bacteria: Effects of pre-degredation and inorganic nutrients. Aquatic Sciences, doi: 10.1007/s00027-014-0346-7 (id:2414)

Eronen-Rasimus, E, H Kaartokallio, C Lyra, R Autio, H Kuosa, GS Dieckmann and DN Thomas. 2014.
Bacterial community dynamics and activity in relation to dissolved organic matter availability during sea ice formation in a mesocosm experiment. MicrobiologyOpen (id:2415)

Hulatt CJ, H Kaartokallio, E Sonninen, M Oinonen, CA Stedmon and DN Thomas. 2014.
Radiocarbon dating of fluvial organic matter reveals land use impacts in boreal peatlands. Environmental Science and Technology, doi: 10.1021/es5030004 (id:2461)

Hulatt, CJ, H Kaartokallio, CA Stedmon, R Autio, E Asmala, E Sonninen, M Oinonen and DN Thomas. 2014.
Bioavailability and radiocarbon age of fluvial dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peatland-dominated catchment: Effect of land-use change. Aquatic Sciences (id:2416)

Papadimitriou S, Kennedy H, Kennedy P, Thomas DN (2014)
Kinetics of ikaite precipitation and dissolution in seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures to 265 K. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 140, 199-211. (id:2469)

Asmala E, DG Bowers, R Autio, H Kaartokallio and DN Thomas. 2014.
Flocculation of riverine humic-rich dissolved organic matter at low salinities. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences,doi: 10.1002/2014JG002722 (id:2454)

Crabeck O, B Delille, S Rysgaard, DN Thomas, N-X Geilfus, B Else and J-L Tison. 2014.
First 'in situ' determination of gas transport coefficients (DO2, DAr and DN2) from bulk gas concentration (O2, N2, Ar) in natural sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2014JC009849 (id:2455)

Zhou J, B. Delille, H Kaartokallio, G Kattner, H Kuosa, J-L Tison, R. Autio, GS Dieckmann, K-U Evers, L. Jørgensen, H Kennedy, M Kotovitch, A-M Luhtanen, CA Stedmon and DN Thomas. 2014.
Physical and bacterial controls on the distribution of inorganic nutrients and DOC in sea ice during an experimental ice growth and decay cycle. Marine Chemistry, doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2014.09.013 (id:2467)

DH Søgaard, DN Thomas, S Rysgaard, RN Glud, L Norman, H Kaartokallio, T Juul-Pedersen and NX Geilfus. 2013.
The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to the carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice. Polar Biology, 36, 1761-1777.
(id:2315)

H Kaartokallio, DH Søgaard, L Norman, S Rysgaard, B DeLille, JL Tison and DN Thomas. 2013.
Short-term variability in bacteria abundance, cell properties, leucine and thymidine incorporation in subarctic sea ice. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 71, 57-73. (id:2314)

Papadimitriou S., Kennedy H., Kennedy, D.P Thomas D.N. 2013
Ikaite solubility in seawater-derived brines at 1 atm and sub-zero temperatures to 265 K. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 109 (2013) 241-253 (id:2103)

Pieńkowski, A.J., Marret, F., Scourse, J.D. and Thomas, D.N. 2013
Organic-walled microfossils from the north-west Weddell Sea, Antarctica: records from surface sediments after the collapse of the Larsen-A and Prince Gustav Channel ice-shelves. Antarctic Science 25, 565-574.
PDF or website (id:2272)

Underwood, GJC, Aslam, S, Michel, C, Niemi, A, Norman, L, Meiners, KM, Laybourn-Parry, J, Paterson, H and Thomas, DN. 2013.
Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, 15734-15739. (id:2317)

E Asmala, R Autio, H Kaartokallio, L Pitkänen, CA Stedmon and DN Thomas. 2013.
Bioavailability of riverine dissolved organic matter in three Baltic Sea estuaries and the effect of catchment land-use. Biogeosciences, 10, 6969-6989. (id:2316)

JM Webb, R Quintã, S Papadimitriou, L Norman, M Rigby, DN Thomas, L Le Vay (2013)
The effect of halophyte planting density on the efficiency of constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater from marine aquaculture Ecological Engineering 61, 145-15 (id:2305)

M Fischer, DN Thomas, A Krell, G Nehrke, J Goettlicher, L Norman, K Meiners, C Riaux-Gobin and GS Dieckmann. 2013.
Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice. Antarctic Science, 25, 421-432. (id:2319)

S Müller, A Vähätalo, CA Stedmon, MA Granskog, L Norman, S Aslam, GJC Underwood, GS Dieckmann and DN Thomas. 2013.
Selective incorporation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during sea ice formation. Marine Chemistry, 155, 148-157. (id:2318)

CJ Hulatt, A-M Lakaneimi, J Puhakka and DN Thomas. 2012.
Energy demands of nitrogen supply in mass cultivation of two commercially important microalgal species, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta. BioEnergy Research, Published online: 2 February 2012. DOI: 10.1007/s12155-011-9175-x
PDF or website (id:1979)

Meiners, KM, Vancoppenolle, M, Thanassekos, S, Dieckmann, GS, Thomas, DN, Tison, J-L, Arrigo, KR, Garrison, D, McMinn, A, Lannuzel, D, van der Merwe, P, Swadling, K, Smith Jr., WO, Melnikov, I and Raymond, B. 2012.
Chlorophyll a in Antarctic sea ice from historical ice core data. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L21602, doi:10.1029/2012GL053478 (id:2320)

Moate, BD, Bowers, DG and Thomas, DN. 2012.
Measurements of mineral particle absorption properties in turbid estuaries: intercomparison of methods and implications for optical inversions. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science, 99 95-107
PDF or website (id:1977)

Papadimitriou, S, Kennedy, H, Norman, L, Kennedy, P, Dieckmann, GS and Thomas, DN. 2012.
The effect of biological activity, CaCO3 mineral dynamics, and CO2 degassing on the inorganic carbon cycle in sea ice during the late winter-early spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, doi: 10.1029/2012JC008058. (id:2066)

SN Aslam, T Cresswell-Maynard, DN Thomas and GJC Underwood. 2012.
Production and characterisation of the intra- and extracellular carbohydrates and polymeric substances (EPS) of three sea ice diatom species, and evidence for a cryoprotective role for EPS. Journal of Phycology, 48, 1494-1509. (id:2067)

A Dausse, A Garbutt, L Norman, LM Jones, S Papadimitriou, PE Robins and DN Thomas. 2012.
Biogeochemical functioning of grazed estuarine tidal marsh along a salinity gradient. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 100, 83-92.
PDF or website (id:1978)

A Räike, P Kortelainen, T Mattsson and DN Thomas. 2012.
36 year trends in dissolved organic carbon export from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea. Science of the Total Environment, 435, 188-201. (id:2068)

A-M Lakaniemi, CJ Hulatt, K Wakeham, DN Thomas and JA Puhakka. 2012.
Eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial communities during microalgal biomass production. Bioresource Technology, 124, 387-393. (id:2321)

CJ Hulatt, A-M Lakaneimi, J Puhakka and DN Thomas. 2012.
Energy demands of nitrogen supply in mass cultivation of two commercially important microalgal species, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta. BioEnergy Research, 5, 669-684. (id:2322)

E Asmala, C Stedmon and DN Thomas. 2012.
Using CDOM absorption coefficients to estimate DOC concentrations in coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 111, 107-117. (id:2064)

JM Webb, R Quintã, S Papadimitrou, L Norman, M Rigby, DN Thomas and L LeVay. 2012.
Halophyte filter beds for treatment of saline wastewater from aquaculture. Water Research, 46, 5102-5114. (id:2065)

L Tedesco, M Vichi and DN Thomas. 2012.
Process studies on the ecological coupling between sea ice algae and phytoplankton. Ecological Modelling, 226, 120-138.
(id:1982)

SN Aslam, GJC Underwood, H Kaartokallio, L Norman, R Autio, M Fischer, GS Dieckmann and DN Thomas. 2012.
Dissolved extracellular polymeric substance (dEPS) production and bacterial growth during sea ice formation in an ice tank study. Polar Biology, 35, 661-676. (id:2323)

Olsen, Y.S., Dausse, A., Garbutt, A., Ford, H., Thomas, D.N. and Jones, D.L. (2011)
Impact of cattle grazing on nitrogen and carbon processing in a temperate saltmarsh. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 531-541. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.11.018 (id:1880)

CA Stedmon, DN Thomas, S Papadimitriou, MA Granskog and GS Dieckmann. 2011.
Using fluorescence to characterise dissolved organic matter in Antarctic sea ice brines. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, doi:10.1029/2011JG001716 (id:1907)

Carver, SM, Hulatt, CJ, Thomas, DN and Tuovinen, OH (2011)
Thermophilic, anaerobic co-digestion of microalgal biomass and cellulose for H2 production. Biodegredation, 22, 805-814. DOI 10.110/s10532-010-9419-z (id:1872)

Hulatt, CJ and Thomas, DN. 2011.
Energy efficiency of an outdoor microalgal photobioreactor sited at mid-temperate latitude. Bioresource Technology, 102, 6687-6695. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.098 (id:1904)

Hulatt, CJ and Thomas, DN. 2011.
Productivity, carbon dioxide uptake and net energy balance of microalgal bubble column photobioreactors. Bioresource Technology, 102, 5775-5787 (id:1891)

K.M. Meiners, L.Norman, M.A. Granskog, A. Krell, P. Heil and D. N. Thomas. (2011)
Physico-ecobiogeochemistry of East Antarctic pack ice during the winter-spring transition, Deep- Sea Research II, 58, 1172-1181. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.033 (id:1878)

L Norman, CA Stedmon, DN Thomas, M Granskog, S Papadimitriou, KM Meiners, P van der Merwe, D Lanuzel and G.S. Dieckmann.(2011)
Characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Antarctic sea ice, Deep-Sea Research II, 58, 1075-1091, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.030 (id:1877)

S Rysgaard, J Bendtsen, B Delille, GS Dieckmann, R Glud, H Kennedy, J Mortensen, S Papadimitriou, DN Thomas and J-L Tison. 2011.
Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO2 exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Tellus B, 63, 823-830. (id:1908)

A-M Lakaniemi, CJ Hulatt, DN Thomas, OH Tuovinen and JA Puhakka. 2011.
Biogenic hydrogen and methane production from Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta biomass. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 4, 34 doi:10.1186/1754-6834-4-34 (id:2324)

G Massé, ST Belt, X Crosta, S Schmidt, I Snape, DN Thomas and SJ Rowland. 2011.
Highly branched isoprenoind dienes and trienes as proxies for variable sea ice conditions in the Antarctic. Antarctic Science, 23, 487-498. (id:1903)

GJC Underwood, S Fietz, S Papadimitriou, DN Thomas and GS Dieckmann. 2010.
Distribution and properties of dissolved extracellular polymeric substance in Antarctic sea ice habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 404, 1-19. doi: 10.3354/meps08557
PDF or website (id:1836)

GS Dieckmann, G Nehrke, C Uhlig, J Göttlicher, S Gerland, MA Granskog and DN Thomas. 2010.
Ikaite (CaCO_3·6H2O) discovered in Arctic sea ice. The Cryosphere, 4, 227-230
PDF or website (id:1850)

Hulatt, C.J. and Thomas, D.N. (2010)
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in microalgal photobioreactors: A potential loss in solar energy conversion? Bioresource Technology 101(22) 8690-8697, doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.086 (id:1863)

Sartoris, FJ., Thomas, DN., Cornils, A. and Schnack-Schiel, SB. (2010)
Buoyancy and diapause in Antarctic copepods: The role of ammonium accumulation. Limnology and Oceanography, 55, 1860-1864. doi:10.4319/lo.2010.55.5.1860 (id:1858)

Hulatt, C, DN Thomas, DG Bowers, L Norman and C Zheng. 2009.
Exudation and decomposition of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from some macroalgae. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science. 84, 147-153
PDF or website (id:1732)

Meiners, K.M., Papadimitriou, S., Thomas, D.N., Norman L. and Dieckmann G.S. 2009.
Biogeochemical conditions and ice algal photosynthetic parameters in Weddell Sea ice during early spring. Polar Biology, doi:10.1007/s00300-009-0605-6
PDF or website (id:1719)

Papadimitriou, S., Thomas, D.N., Kennedy, H., Kuosa, H., and Dieckmann, G.S. 2009.
Inorganic carbon removal and isotopic enrichment in Antarctic sea ice gap layers during early austral summer. Marine Ecology Progress Series. doi:10.3354/meps08049
PDF or website (id:1718)

Pieńkowski, A.J., Marret, F., Thomas, D.N., Scourse, J.D. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2009.
Dinoflagellates in a fast -ice covered inlet of the Riiser-Larsen Ice Shelf (Antarctica): Polar Biology 32, 1331-1343. doi:10.1007/s00300-009-0630-5
PDF or website (id:1717)

Van der Merwe, P., Lannuzel, D., Mancuso Nichols, C.A., Meiners, K., Heil, P., Norman, L., Thomas, D.N. and Bowie, A.R. 2009.
Biogeochemical observations during the winter-spring transition in East Antarctic sea ice: Evidence of iron and exopolysaccharide controls. Marine Chemistry. 115, 163-175
PDF or website (id:1790)

Schnack-Schiel, SB, C Haas, J Michels, E Mizdalski, H Schünemann, M Steffens, DN Thomas. 2008.
Copepods in sea ice of the western Weddell Sea during austral spring 2004. Deep Sea Research II. 55, 1056- 1067.
PDF or website (id:1632)

Dieckmann, GS, Nehrke, G, Papadimitriou, S, Göttlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D. and Thomas, DN. 2008.
Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic ice. Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 35. doi:10.1029/2008GL033540
PDF or website (id:1611)

Tison, J-L, T Worby, B deLille, F Brabant, S Papadimitriou, DN Thomas, J de Jong, D Lannuzel and C Haas. 2008
Temporal evolution of decaying summer first-year sea ice in the Western Weddell Sea. Deep Sea Research II. 55, 975-987
PDF or website (id:1450)

Clarke, A.C., MP Meredith, MI Wallace, M Brandon and DN Thomas. 2008
Seasonal and interannual variability in temperature, chlorophyll and macronutrients in Ryder Bay, northern Marguerite Bay, Antarctica. Deep Sea Research II. 55, 1988-2006.
PDF or website (id:653)

Michels, J., GS Dieckmann, DN Thomas, S Schnack-Schiel, A Krell, P Assmy, H Kennedy, S Papadimitriou and B Cisewski. 2008
Short term biogenic particle flux under late spring sea ice in the western Weddell Sea. Deep Sea Research II. 55, 1024-1039.
PDF or website (id:765)

Zemmelink, H.J., L Houghton, JWH Dacey, J Stefels, BP Koch, G Schröder, M Wisotzki, A Scheltz, DN Thomas, S Papadimitriou, H Kennedy, H Kuosa and T Dittmar. 2008
Stratification and the distribution of phytoplankton, nutrients, inorganic carbon, and sulfur in the surface waters of the Weddell Sea. Deep Sea Research II. 55, 988-999.
PDF or website (id:766)

Stedmon C., Thomas D.N., Granskog M., Kaartokallio H., Papadimitriou S. and Kuosa H. 2007
The characteristics of dissolved organic matter in Baltic coastal sea ice: Allochthonous or autochthonous origin? Environmental Science and Technology. DOI: 10.1021/es071210f
PDF or website (id:1451)

Evans, C.D., C Freeman, LG Cork, DN Thomas, B Reynolds, MF Billet, MH Garnett and D Norris. 2007
Evidence against recent climate-induced destabilisation of soil carbon from 14C analysis of riverine dissolved organic matter. Geophysical Research Letters. 34, L07407, doi 10.1029/2007GL029431
PDF or website (id:655)

Kaartokallio, H., H Kuosa, DN Thomas, MA Granskog and K Kivi. 2007
Biomass, composition and activity of organism assemblages along a salinity gradient in sea ice subjected to river discharge in the Baltic Sea. Polar Biology.30, 183-197.
PDF or website (id:656)

Papadimitriou, S., DN Thomas, H Kennedy, C Haas, H Kuosa, A Krell and GS Dieckmann. 2007
Biogeochemical composition of natural sea ice brines from the Weddell Sea during early austral summer. Limnology and Oceanography. 52 1809-1823
PDF or website (id:654)

Granskog, M.A., Kaartokallio, H., Kuosa, H., Thomas, D.N. and Vainio, J. 2006
Sea ice in the Baltic Sea - A Review. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science, 70, 145-160.
PDF or website (id:24)

Steffens, M., MA Granskog, H Kaartokallio, H Kuosa, K Luodekari, S Papadimitriou and DN Thomas. 2006
Spatial variation of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea). Annals of Glaciology. 44, 80-87.
PDF or website (id:657)

Granskog, M.A., H Kaartokallio, DN Thomas and H Kuosa. 2005
Influence of freshwater inflow on the inorganic nutrient and dissolved organic matter within coastal sea ice and underlying waters in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science. 65, 109-122.
PDF or website (id:659)

Granskog, M.A., Kaartokallio, H., Kuosa, H., Thomas, D.N., Ehn, J. and Sonninen, E. 2005
Scales of horizontal patchiness in chlorophyll-a, chemical and physical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Polar Biology, 28, 276- 283.
PDF or website (id:126)

Krell, A., Schnack-Schiel, S.B., Thomas, D.N., Kattner, G., Zipan, W. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2005
Phytoplankton dynamics in relation to hydrography, nutrients and zooplankton at the onset of sea ice formation in the eastern Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Polar Biology, 28, 700-713.
PDF or website (id:144)

Mock, T. and Thomas, D.N.. 2005
Sea ice - Recent advances in microbial studies Environmental Microbiology. 7, 605-619.
PDF or website (id:662)

Thomas, D.N. 2005
Photosynthetic microbes in freezing deserts. Trends in Microbiology, 13, 87-88.
PDF or website (id:182)

Papadimitriou, S, Kennedy, H, Kattner, G, Dieckmann, GS and Thomas, DN 2004
Experimental evidence for carbonate precipitation and CO2 degassing during sea ice formation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta., 68, 1749-1761.
PDF or website (id:260)

Arrigo, K.R. and Thomas, D.N. 2004
The importance of sea ice for the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Antarctic Science, 16, 471-486.
PDF or website (id:200)

Bowers, D.G., Evans, D., Thomas, D.N., Ellis, K. and Williams, P.J.leB. 2004
Interpreting the colour of an estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 59, 13-20.
PDF or website (id:214)

Granskog, M.A., Virkkunen, K., Thomas, D.N., Ehn, J., Kola, H. and Martma, T. 2004
Chemical properties of brackish water ice in the Bothnian Bay, the Baltic Sea. Journal of Glaciology, 50, 292-302. (id:125)

Kattner, G., Thomas, D.N., Haas, C., Kennedy, H. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2004
Surface ice and gap layers in Antarctic sea ice: highly productive habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 277, 1-12,
PDF or website (id:243)

Papadimitriou, S., Kennedy, H. and Thomas, D.N. 2004
Rates of organic carbon oxidation in deep sea sediments in the eastern North Atlantic from pore water profiles of O2 and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon. Marine Geology, 212, 97-111.
PDF or website (id:259)

Patsayeva, S., R Reuter and DN Thomas. 2004
Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in seawater at low temperatures and during ice formation. EARSeL eProceedings 3, 227-238.
PDF or website (id:665)

Schnack-Schiel, S.B., Kattner, G., Dieckmann, G.S. and Thomas, D.N. 2004
Copepods under summer fast ice in the eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biology, 27, 502- 506.
PDF or website (id:271)

Thomas, D.N.. 2003
Iron limitation in the Southern Ocean. Science 302, 565.
PDF or website (id:673)

Krell, A., C Ummenhofer, G. Kattner, A Naumov, DW Evans, GS Dieckmann and DN Thomas. 2003
The biology and chemistry of land fast-ice in the White Sea, Russia - A comparison of winter and spring conditions. Polar Biology. 26, 707-719.
PDF or website (id:672)

Mock, T., GS Dieckmann, C Haas, J-L Tison, A Krell, AL. Belem, S. Papadimitriou and DN Thomas. 2002
Micro-optodes in a sea ice: A new approach to investigate oxygen dynamics during sea ice formation. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 29, 297-306.
PDF or website (id:674)

Thomas, D.N. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2002
Biogeochemistry of Antarctic sea ice. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 40, 143 -169. (id:678)

Brierley, A.S. and DN Thomas. 2002
The ecology of Southern Ocean pack ice. Advances in Marine Biology 43, 171-278. (id:679)

Kennedy, H., Thomas, D.N., Kattner, G., Haas, C. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2002
Particulate organic carbon in Antarctic summer sea ice: Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition. Marine Ecology Progress Series 238, 1-13.
PDF or website (id:677)

Papadimitriou, S., Kennedy, H., Bentaleb, I. and Thomas, D.N.. 2002
Dissolved organic carbon in sediments from the NE Atlantic Continental Slope. Marine Chemistry 79, 37-47.
PDF or website (id:676)

Post, A.F., Z Dedej, R. Gottlieb, H Li, DN Thomas, M El-Absawi, A El-Naggar, M El-Gharabawi and U Sommer. 2002
Spatial and temporal distribution of Trichodesmium spp. in the stratified Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 239, 241-250.
PDF or website (id:675)

Thomas, D.N. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2002
Antarctic sea ice - a habitat for extremophiles. Science 295. 641-644.
PDF or website (id:680)

Thomas, D.N., H Kennedy, G Kattner, D Gerdes, C Gough and GS Dieckmann. 2001
Biogeochemistry of platelet ice: Influence on particle flux under land fast sea ice during summer at Drescher Inlet, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biology. 24. 486-496. (Also published in 2002. In: Ecological Studies in the Antarctic sea ice Zone (Eds. WE Arntz and A Clarke). pp169-179. Springer Verlag Berlin Heilelberg).
PDF or website (id:685)

Thomas, D.N., R. Engbrodt, V. Giannelli, G. Kattner, H. Kennedy, C. Haas and GS Dieckmann. 2001
Dissolved organic matter in Antarctic sea ice. Annals of Glaciology 33. 297-303.
PDF or website (id:682)

Giannelli, V., Thomas, D.N., Haas, C., Kattner, G., Kennedy, H.A. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2001
Behaviour of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients during experimental sea ice formation. Annals of Glaciology, 33, 317–321.
PDF or website (id:315)

Haas, C., Thomas, D.N. and Bareiss, J. 2001
Surface properties and processes of perennial Antarctic sea ice in summer. Journal of Glaciology, 47, 613-625. (id:317)

Herborg, L.M., Thomas, D.N., Kennedy, H., Haas, C. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2001
Dissolved carbohydrates in Antarctic sea ice. Antarctic Science, 13, 119-125.
PDF or website (id:322)

Schnack-Schiel, S.B., Dieckman, G.S., Gradinger, R., Melnikov, I.A., Spindler, M. and Thomas, D.N. 2001
Meiofauna in sea ice of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Polar Biology, 24, 724-728. (id:377)

Schnack-Schiel, S.B., Thomas, D.N., Haas, C., Dieckmann, G.S. and Alheit, R. 2001
The occurrence of the copepods Stephos longipes (Calanoida) and Drescheriella glacialis (Harpacticoida) in summer sea ice in the Weddell Sea. Antarctic Science, 13, 150-157.
PDF or website (id:378)

Haas, C., F Cottier, LH Smedsrud, DN Thomas, U Buschmann, D Dethleff, S Gerland, V Giannelli, J Hoelemann, J-L Tison and P Wadhams. 1999
Multidisciplinary ice tank study shedding new light on sea ice growth processes. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 80. 507-513. (id:688)

Thomas, D.N., RJ Lara, C Haas, SB Schnack-Schiel, E-M Nöthig, GS Dieckmann, G. Kattner and E. Mizdalski. 1998
Biological soup within decaying summer sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. In Antarctic Sea Ice Biological Processes, Interactions and Variability (eds. M Lizotte and K Arrigo). American Geophysical Union. Antarctic Research Series 73. 161 - 171. (id:689)

Dieckmann, G.S., H Eicken, C Haas, DL Garrison, M Gleitz, M Lange, E-M Nöthig, M Spindler, CW Sullivan, DN Thomas and J Weissenberger. 1998
A compilation of data on sea ice algal standing crop from the Bellingshausen, Amundsen and Weddell Seas from 1983 to 1994. In Antarctic Sea Ice Biological Processes, Interactions and Variability (eds. M Lizotte and K Arrigo). American Geophysical Union. Antarctic Research Series 73. 85 - 92. (id:690)

Lara, R.J, V Rachold, G Kattner, H-W Hubberten, G Guggenberger, A Skoog and DN Thomas. 1998
Dissolved organic matter and nutrients in the Lena River, Siberian Arctic: characteristics and distribution. Marine Chemistry 59. 301-310. (id:691)

Skoog, A., DN Thomas, RJ Lara and K-U Richter. 1997
Methodological investigations on DOC determinations by the HTCO method. Marine Chemistry 56. 39-44. (id:692)

Lara, R.J., U Hubberten, DN Thomas, MEM Baumann and G Kattner. 1997
Dissolved organic matter studies in enclosed systems: Application of hydrophobic fractionation for the assessment of organic nitrogen dynamics. Journal of Marine Systems 13. 155-161. (id:693)

Weykam, G., Thomas, D.N. and Wiencke, . 1997
Growth and photosynthesis of the Antarctic red algae, Palmaria decipiens (Palmariales) and Iridaea cordata (Gigartinales) during and following extended periods of darkness. Phycologia 36. 395-405. (id:694)

Gómez, I., Wiencke, C. and Thomas, D.N. 1996
Age-dependent variations in photosynthetic characteristics of the Antarctic brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis Skottsberg. European Journal of Phycology 31. 167-172. (id:695)

Peters, E. and Thomas, D.N. 1996
Prolonged darkness and diatom mortality 1: Marine Antarctic species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 207. 25-41. (id:697)

Peters, E. and Thomas, D.N. 1996
Prolonged nitrate exhaustion and diatom mortality - A comparison of polar and temperate Thalassiosira species. Journal of Plankton Research 18. 953-968. (id:696)

Thomas, D.N. and Lara, R.J. 1995
Photodegradation of algal dissolved organic carbon. Marine Ecology Progress Series 116. 309-310. (id:698)

Thomas, D.N., RJ Lara, H Eicken, G Kattner and A Skoog. 1995
Dissolved organic matter in Arctic multi- year sea ice during winter: Major components and relationship to ice characteristics. Polar Biology 15. 477-483. (id:700)

Gómez, I., Thomas, D.N. and Wiencke, C. 1995
Longitudinal profiles of growth, photosynthesis and light independent carbon fixation in the Antarctic brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis. Botanica Marina 38. 157-164. (id:699)

Gleitz, M., M Rutgers vd Loeff, DN Thomas, GS Dieckmann and FJ Millero. 1995
Comparison of summer and winter inorganic carbon, oxygen and nutrient concentrations in Antarctic sea ice brine. Marine Chemistry 51. 81-91.
PDF or website (id:702)

Haas, C. and Thomas, D.N. 1995
Glacial-ice fragments in Antarctic sea ice. Journal of Glaciology 41. 432-435. (id:701)

Lara, R.J. and Thomas, D.N. 1995
Formation of recalcitrant organic matter: Humification dynamics of algal derived dissolved organic carbon and its hydrophobic fractions. Marine Chemistry 51. 193-199. (id:703)

Schnack-Schiel, S.B., DN Thomas, GS Dieckmann, H Eicken, R Gradinger, M Spindler, J Weissenburger, E Mizdalski and K Beyer. 1995
Life cycle strategy of the Antarctic calanoid copepod Stephos longipes. Progress in Oceanography 36. 45-75. (id:704)

Lara, R.J. and Thomas, D.N. 1994
XAD-fractionation of "new" dissolved organic matter: Is the hydrophobic fraction seriously underestimated? Marine Chemistry 47. 93-96. (id:706)

Lara, R.J. and Thomas, D.N. 1994.
Isolation of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter: Evaluation of Sequential Combinations of XAD Resins 2,4 and 7. Analytical Chemistry 66. 2417-2419. (id:705)

Thomas, D.N. and Gleitz, M. 1993
Allocation of photoassimilated carbon into major algal metabolite fractions: Variation between two diatom species isolated from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Polar Biology 13. 281-286. (id:707)

Gleitz, M. and Thomas, D.N. 1993
Variation in phytoplankton standing stock, chemical composition and physiology during sea ice formation in the southeastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 173. 211-230. (id:708)

Thomas, D.N., MEM Baumann and M Gleitz. 1992
Efficiency of carbon assimilation and photoacclimation in a small unicellular Chaetoceros species from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica): Influence of temperature and irradiance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 157. 195-209. (id:709)

Gleitz, M. and Thomas, D.N. 1992
Physiological responses of a small Antarctic diatom (Chaetoceros sp.
to simulated environmental contraints associated with sea-ice formation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 88. 271-278. (id:710)

Thomas, D.N. and Kirst, G.O. 1991
Differences in osmoacclimation between sporophytes and gametophytes of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Physiologia Plantarum 83. 281-289. (id:714)

Thomas, D.N. and Kirst, G.O. 1991
Salt tolerance of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngb: Comparison of gametophytes, sporophytes and isolates of different geographic origin. Botanica Acta 104. 26-36. (id:711)

Thomas, D.N. and Wiencke, C. 1991
Photosynthesis, dark respiration and light independent carbon fixation of endemic Antarctic macroalgae. Polar Biology 11. 329-337. (id:712)

Karsten, U., DN Thomas, G Weykam, C Daniel and GO Kirst. 1991
A simple and rapid method for extraction and separation of low molecular weight carbohydrates from macroalgae using high-performance liquid chromatography. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 29. 373-378. (id:713)

Thomas, D.N., JC Collins and G Russell. 1990
Inter- population differences in the salt tolerances of two Cladophora species. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 30. 201-206. (id:715)

Thomas, D.N., Collins, J.C. and Russell, G. 1989
Physiological responses to salt stress of two ecologically different Cladophora species. Botanica Marina 32. 259- 265. (id:716)

Thomas, D.N., Collins, J.C. and Russell, G. 1988
Interactive effects of temperature and salinity upon net photosynthesis of Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kutz. and C. rupestris (L.) Kutz. Botanica Marina 31. 73-77. (id:717)

Books

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Williams PJ LeB, Evans D, Roberts DJ, Thomas DN. 2015
Art Forms from the Abyss Ernst Haeckel's Images from the HMS Challenger Expedition. Prestel ISBN: 978-3-7913-8141-1
PDF or website (id:2553)

DN Thomas and DG Bowers. 2012. Introducing Oceanography. 151 pages. Dunedin Academic Press Ltd. ISBN 9781780460017.
PDF or website (id:2312)

MJ Kaiser, M Attrill, S Jennings, DN Thomas, D Barnes, AS Brierley, JG Hiddink, H Kaartokallio, N Polunin and D Raffaelli. 2011.
Marine Ecology - Processes, Systems and Impacts. 2nd Edition. 576 pages. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199227020. (id:1893)

Thomas, DN and Dieckmann, GS(Eds.). 2010.
Sea Ice - 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. 600 pages. ISBN 978-1-4051-8580-6
PDF or website (id:1733)

Thomas, D.N., GE Fogg, P Convey, C Fritsen, J-M Gilli, R Gradinger, J Laybourn-Parry, K Reid, D Walton. 2008
Biology of Polar Regions. 416 pages. Oxford University Press. ISBN-13:9780199298136
PDF or website (id:645)

Thomas, D.N. 2007
Surviving Antarctica. Natural History Museum. 96 pages. ISBN 0565092170. Also published by Firefly Books (USA and Canada) ISBN 1554072941 and Museum Victoria (Australia and New Zealand).
PDF or website (id:646)

Kaiser, M.J., M Attrill, S Jennings, DN Thomas, D Barnes, AS Brierley, N Polunin, D Raffaelli and P J LeB Williams. 2005
Marine Ecology - Processes, Systems and Impacts. Oxford University Press. 584 pages. ISBN 019924975X.
PDF or website (id:647)

Søndergaard, M. and Thomas, D.N. (Eds.) 2004
Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in Aquatic Ecosystems: A Study of European Catchments and Coastal Waters. 74 pages. ISBN 8789143256
PDF or website (id:649)

Thomas, D.N. 2004
Frozen Oceans - The Floating World of Pack Ice. Natural History Museum, London. 240 pages. ISBN 0565 091883. Also published by Firefly Books (USA and Canada) ISBN 1554070007 and CSIRO (Australia and New Zealand) ISBN 0643090878
PDF or website (id:648)

Thomas, D.N.2002
Seaweeds. Natural History Museum. 96 pages. ISBN 0565091751. Also published by the Smithsonion Institute Press (USA and Canada) ISBN 1-58834-050-3 and CSIRO (Australia and New Zealand) ISBN 0565091751
PDF or website (id:651)

Williams P.J. LeB, Thomas, D.N. and Reynolds, C.S. (Eds.) 2002
Phytoplankton Productivity - Carbon assimilation in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Blackwell Publishing. 320 pages. ISBN 0632057114. (id:652)

Thomas, D.N. and Dieckmann, G.S. (Eds.) 2003
Sea ice - An Introduction to its Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology. Blackwells Publishing, Oxford. 416 pages. ISBN 0632058080. Contains - DN Thomas and S. Papadimitriou. Chapter 9, Biogeochemistry of sea ice. Pages 267-302.
PDF or website (id:767)

Book Reviews

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DN Thomas. 2010.
Book review of 'Field Techniques for Sea Ice Research' by H Eicken et al. Polar Biology. 33, 1161-1162. (id:1894)

Thomas, D.N. 2005
Antarctic Marine Protists. FJ Scott and H Marchant. Polar Record. 41, 366-367. (id:751)

Thomas, D.N. 2005
Life in Ancient Ice. JD Castello and SO Rogers. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 80(4),495. (id:750)

Thomas, D.N. 2004
The Snowflake. K Libbrecht and P Rasmussen. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol. (December). (id:752)

Thomas, D.N. 2001
Plant Life. R Ennos and E Sheffield. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol. 19 (February). (id:753)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
The Biology of Polar Habitats. GE Fogg. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol. 17 (April). (id:754)

Thomas, D.N. 1996
Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. C van den Hoek, DG Mann and HM Jahns. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol. 14 (September). (id:755)

Thomas, D.N. 1996
Freshwater algae: Their microscopic world explored. H Canter- Lund and JWG Lund. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol. 14 (April). (id:756)

Book Chapters

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DN Thomas, H Kaartokallio, L Tedesco, J Piiperinen, M Majaneva, J-M Rintala, E Eronen, H Kuosa, J Blomster and MA Granskog. 2014.
Chapter 10 - Sea ice. In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea (eds. P Snoeijs, H Schubert and T Radziejewska). Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-0667-5
PDF or website (id:1974)

DN Thomas. 2012. Chapter 4 - Sea ice. In: Life at Extremes: Environments, Organisms and Strategies for Survival (ed. EM Bell). CABI Publishing. Wallingford, U.K. pp 62-80. (id:1975)

P Convey, DKA Barnes, H Griffiths, S Grant, K Linse and DN Thomas. 2012.
Chapter 15 - Biogeography and regional classifications of Antarctica. In: Antarctic Ecosystems: An Extreme Environment in a Changing World (eds. AD Rogers, NM Johnston, EJ Murphy and A Clarke). Blackwell Publishing. pp 461-480. (id:1976)

DN Thomas. 2011.
Sea ice. In: Life at Extremes: Environments, Organisms and Strategies for Survival (ed. EM Bell). CABI Publishing. Wallingford, U.K. ISBN-13: 9781845938147
PDF or website (id:1909)

DN Thomas. 2011.
The Biogeochemistry of sea ice. In: Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers (Eds. U Haritashya, P Singh and VP Singh). Springer, Dordrecht Heidelberg. pp. 98-102. (id:1770)

DN Thomas. 2011.
The Nature of Ice. In: Arctic Tipping Points (eds. P Wassmann and CM Duarte). BBVA Foundation, Bilbao, Spain. 50-51. (id:1892)

P Convey, DKA Barnes, H Griffiths, S Grant, K Linse and DN Thomas. 2011.
Biogeography and regional classifications of Antarctica. In: Antarctic Ecosystems: An Extreme Environment in a Changing World (eds. AD Rogers, NM Johnston, EJ Murphy and A Clarke). Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9781444347241
PDF or website (id:1910)

Thomas, DN, Papadimitriou, S and Michel, C. 2010.
The Biogeochemistry of sea ice. In: Sea ice - 2nd Edition (Eds. DN Thomas and GS Dieckmann) Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. (id:1768)

GS Dieckmann and DN Thomas. 2009.
Sea ice: an icy crucible. In: Biological studies in Polar Oceans: Exploration of life in icy waters (Eds. I and G Hempel). Wirtschaftsverlag. Nordwest Wilhelmshaven, Germany. (id:1769)

Mock, T and Thomas, DN. 2007.
Microalgae in Polar regions: Linking functional genomics and physiology with environmental conditions. In: Psychrophiles: From Biodiversity to Biotechnology (Eds. R Margesin, F Schinner, J-C Marx and C Gerday). Springer Verlag, Berlin. pp. 285-312. (id:1559)

Kaiser, M.J., Hall, S.J. and Thomas, D.N.. 2005
Habitat modification. In: The Sea, volume 13 (Eds. AL Robinson and KH Brink). Harvard University Press. pp. 927-970.
PDF or website (id:719)

Lara, R.J., U Hubberten, DN Thomas and G Kattner. 1996
Humic substance research in polar waters. In: Humic substances and organic matter in soil and water environments: Characterisation. Transformation and interactions. (Eds. C Clapp, MHB Hayes, N Senesi and S Griffith). pp. 241-248. (id:720)

Additional Publications

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Papadimitriou S, Kennedy H, Kennedy P, Thomas DN (2014)
Seawater freezing and hydrated sea salt formation: Ikaite in the sea ice of polar oceans. In: Diamond Light Source Annual Review 2013/14, Publisher: Diamond Light Source, pp.42-43 (id:2470)

DN Thomas. 2011. Studying the natural history of pack ice in the Weddell Sea. In: Nimrod, The Journal of the Ernest Shackleton Autumn School, 5, 20-26. (id:2313)

J.M. Webb, L. Le Vay, D.N. Thomas and M. Rigby 2009
Integrated hydroponics: Growing Samphire in wastewater from a marine fish farm (Article) Finfish News 7, 9-12. (id:2098)

Thomas, D.N. and Mock, T. (2005)
Life in frozen veins - Coping with the cold. The Biochemist, 27, 12-16.
PDF or website (id:183)

Thomas, D.N. 2004
From Plankton to Trees. Form Magazine vol 1 (December), 17-21 (id:723)

Thomas, D.N. 2004
La banquisa: 'Pack Ice'. Omnis cellula vol 6, 9-15 (translated into Catalan) (id:722)

Thomas, D.N. 2003
Tough diamonds. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol.21 (May). (id:724)

Thomas, D.N. 2002
Strangers in a Strange Land. Kew Magazine Vol. 37. 24-27 (id:726)

Thomas, D.N., Dieckmann, G. and Mock, T. 2002
Lebensraum Meereis. Biologen Heute, vdbiol. (id:727)

Dieckmann, G., Mock, T. and Thomas, D.N. 2002
Meereis. Spektrum der Wissenschaft Dossier 3/2002. (id:725)

Thomas, D.N. 2001
Ice Station Hamburg. NERC News. Autumn 2001 (id:728)

Thomas, D.N. 2001
Marine craft finds bilge pump useful. The Times Higher Education Supplement. 07.09.01 (id:729)

Thomas, D.N. 2001
Wonder Weeds. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol. 19 (April). (id:730)

Thomas, D.N. 2000
How we can tell mummy ate fish. The Times Higher Education Supplement 11.08.00. (id:732)

Thomas, D.N. 2000
Salt Removal - Last Word. New Scientist 21.10.00. (id:731)

Thomas, D.N. 2000
Saving fragile forests. The Times Higher Education Supplement 18.02.00. (id:734)

Thomas, D.N. 2000
The art of nature. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol.18 (July). (id:733)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
Don's Diary. The Times Higher Education Supplement 21.05.99. (id:741)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
Don's Diary. The Times Higher Education Supplement 27.08.99. (id:739)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
Hot questions of shelf life. The Times Higher Education Supplement 17.09.99. (id:736)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
Life as a BA media fellow. NERC News. Winter 1999. (id:735)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
Living Gems. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol.17 (February). (id:743)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
Living in sea ice. NERC News. Summer 1999. (id:740)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
No quick fix for excesses. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol.17 (May). (id:742)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
Science loses out to Brit. hype. The Times Higher Education Supplement 03.09.99. (id:738)

Thomas, D.N. 1999
Search for the secrets of Arctic ice floes. The Times Higher Education Supplement 10.03.99. (id:737)

Thomas, D.N. 1998
Don's Diary. The Times Higher Education Supplement 13.03.98. (id:744)

Thomas, D.N. 1998
The Big Chill. Daily Post. 19.03.98. (id:745)

Russell, G. and Thomas, D.N. 1988
The Baltic Sea: A cradle of plant evolution? Plants Today 1. 77-82. (id:749)

Thomas, D.N. 1996
Nature's ice- show. BBC Wildlife Magazine vol.14 (December). (id:746)

Thomas, D.N. and Dieckmann, G.S. 1994
Life in a frozen lattice. New Scientist 142. (id:747)

Thomas, D.N. 1993
Splat Count. Letter to New Scientist. 4.12.93 (id:748)

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